The Yang–Mills and Mass Gap is one of the Clay Mathematics Institute's Millennium Prize Problems, with a prize of $1,000,000 for whoever can prove or disprove the Yang–Mills and Mass Gap. Almost half a century ago, Yang and Mills introduced a remarkable new framework to describe elementary particles using structures that also occur in geometry. The successful use of Yang-Mills theory to describe the strong interactions of elementary particles depends on a subtle quantum mechanical property called the "mass gap". The mass gap is the difference in energy between the vacuum and the next lowest energy state. The quantum particles have positive masses, even though the classical waves travel at the speed of light. This property has been discovered by physicists from experiment and confirmed by computer simulations, but it still has not been understood from a theoretical point of view. Therefore one needs to prove that

Yang–Mills theory exists and satisfies the standard of rigor that characterizes contemporary mathematical physics, in particular constructive quantum field theory and that the mass of the least massive particle of the force field predicted by the theory is strictly positive.

 

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