Wireless charging has been introduced in the healthcare, automotive and manufacturing industries as it increases the mobility and could enable small Internet of Things (IoT) devices to get power even when they are several feet away from a charger. The popular wireless technologies depend on electromagnetic fields between two copper coils, which will largely control the distance between a device and a charging pad. Generally, there are three types of wireless charging – charging pads that use tightly-coupled electromagnetic inductive or non-radiative charging; charging bowls or through-surface type chargers using loosely-coupled or radiative electromagnetic charging that can transmit charge for a few centimeters and uncoupled radio frequency (RF) wireless charging which enables trickle charging at a distance of many feet. They all operate on the similar principle of physics: a magnetic field which is time-varying induces current in a closed loop of wire.

There is a magnetic loop antenna which is used to create an oscillating magnetic field and it creates current in one or more of the receiver antennas. If the loops resonate at the same frequency and an appropriate capacitance is added, then the amount of induced current in the receiver increases. This magnetic resonance enables power transmission at greater distances between transmitter and receiver to increase efficiency. The distance of power transfer is also affected by the coil size. The more coils there are, the greater the distance charge travels.

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