Faraday waves, also known as Faraday ripples are nonlinear standing waves that appear on liquids enclosed by a vibrating receptacle. It is named after the renowned scientist Michael Faraday who concluded that if a layer of liquid is placed on top of a vertically oscillating piston, a pattern of standing waves appears which oscillates at half the driving frequency, given certain criteria of instability. The waves thus formed can take the form of stripes, close-packed hexagons, or even squares or quasiperiodic patterns as it also relates to the problem of parametric resonance. He also stated that when the vibration frequency exceeds a certain critical value, the flat liquid surface becomes unstable. This phenomenon is also known as Faraday instability. Unlike solid-based template, this liquid-based template can be dynamically changed by tuning vibrational frequency and acceleration and generate diverse sets of symmetrical and periodic patterns.
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