The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) is an electromagnetic radiation that is remnant from the Big Bang time. It is a faint background radiation that is filling all the available space in the universe and is the oldest electromagnetic radiation that scientist could discover up till now. The CMBR was first discovered when scientist used a sufficiently sensitive radio telescope which revealed a faint isotropic background noise or glow that wasn’t associated with any of the known stars, galaxies or other celestial objects. This glow is nearly uniform in all directions but there do exist tiny residual variations and it perfectly mirrors a hot gas if it were to expand to the current size of the universe. This accidental discovery is credited to radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in the year 1964.

The CMBR has a thermal black body spectrum at a temperature of 2.72548±0.00057 K. The spectral radiance dE?/d? peaks at 160.23 GHz, in the microwave range of frequencies, corresponding to a photon energy of about 6.626 × 10?4 eV.

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