The name fermion was coined by English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac from the surname of Italian physicist Enrico Fermi. Fermions are particles which have half-integer spin and therefore are constrained by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. In particle physics, they are defined as particles that follow Fermi–Dirac statistics. The wave function which describes a collection of fermions must be ant symmetric with respect to the exchange of identical particles. Fermions include particles such as quarks, leptons, baryons and many atoms and nuclei.

Mathematically, fermions come in three types:

•          Weyl fermions (massless),

•          Dirac fermions (massive), and

•          Majorana fermions (each its own antiparticle).

Only 1 fermion may occupy a particular quantum state at any given time. If multiple fermions have the same spatial probability distribution, then at least one property of each fermion, such as its spin, must be different.

Here at MathsOne, one of the Best Maths Tuition Centres in Kerala we educate our students in these subatomic particles and therefore broaden their horizons.