A neutrino is a subatomic particle that has no electrical charge and negligible mass. The mass of the neutrino is much smaller than that of the other known elementary particles. Cosmological observations imply that the sum of the three masses must be less than one millionth that of the electron. A neutrino does not interact with strong nuclear force. It only interacts with weak subatomic force and gravity. For each neutrino, there also exists a corresponding antiparticle, called an antineutrino, which also has half-integer spin and no electric charge. They are distinguished from the neutrinos by having opposite signs of lepton number and chirality.

Neutrinos are created by various radioactive decays, including in beta decay of atomic nuclei or hadrons, nuclear reactions such as those that take place in the core of a star or artificially in nuclear reactors, nuclear bombs or particle accelerators, during a supernova, in the spin-down of a neutron star, or when accelerated particle beams or cosmic rays strike atoms.

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